In Today’s News:
- Black Carbon
- SDG India Index 2020 – 2021
1. Black Carbon
A study by World Bank has said that strong policies on Black carbon cut will help in cutting the pace of the melting of glaciers.
Prelims GS – Environment
- Black carbon, or soot, is part of fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) and contributes to climate change.
- Black carbon is formed by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, wood, and other fuels.
- Complete combustion would turn all carbon in the fuel into carbon dioxide (CO2), but combustion is never complete and CO2, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, and organic carbon and black carbon particles are all formed in the process.
- The complex mixture of particulate matter resulting from incomplete combustion is often referred to as soot.
- Black carbon is a short-lived climate pollutant with a lifetime of only days to weeks after release in the atmosphere.
- During this short period of time, black carbon can have significant direct and indirect impacts on the climate, the cryosphere (snow and ice), agriculture, and human health.
- Measures to prevent black carbon emissions can reduce near-term warming of the climate, increase crop yields and prevent premature deaths.
- When deposited on ice and snow, black carbon and co-emitted particles reduce surface albedo (the ability to reflect sunlight) and heat the surface.
- The Arctic and glaciated regions such as the Himalayas are particularly vulnerable to melting.
Mains GS3 – Climate change/Environment
Measures to reduce black carbon:
- Replace traditional cooking with clean-burning modern fuel cookstoves
- Replace traditional cooking and heating with clean-burning biomass stoves
- Eliminate kerosene lamps
- Use diesel particular filters for road and off-road vehicles
- Ban open burning of municipal waste
- Replace lump coal with coal briquettes for cooking and heating
- Replace wood stove and burners with pellet stoves and boilers
- Modernize traditional brick kilns to vertical shaft brick kilns
- Ban open-field burning of agricultural waste
- Eliminate high-emitting diesel vehicles
Click here to know more about Black carbon on the Courtesy: CCA coalition.
2. SDG India Index 2020 – 2021
The third edition of the SDG India Index and Dashboard 2020–21 was released by NITI Aayog on 3rd June 2021.
Prelims GS – Governance
SDG(Sustainable Development Goals) – India Index:
- The SDG India Index 2020–21, developed in collaboration with the United Nations in India, tracks the progress of all States and UTs on 115 indicators that are aligned to MoSPI’s National Indicator Framework (NIF).
- NITI AAYOG releases the SDG India Index.
- 13 Goals with 62 indicators were assessed in its first edition in 2018 whereas the third edition covers 16 Goals on 115 quantitative indicators, with a qualitative assessment on Goal 17.
- The SDG India Index computes goal-wise scores on the 16 SDGs for each State and Union Territory.
- Overall State and UT scores are generated from goal-wise scores to measure the aggregate performance of the sub-national unit based on its performance across the 16 SDGs.
- These scores range between 0–100, and if a State/UT achieves a score of 100, it signifies it has achieved the 2030 targets.
Click here to view the official SDG dashboard.
Mains GS2 – Governance
Summary of SDG India Index 2020-2021:
- The country’s overall SDG score improved by 6 points—from 60 in 2019 to 66 in 2020–21.
- This positive stride towards achieving the targets is largely driven by exemplary country-wide performance in Goal 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation) and Goal 7(Affordable and Clean Energy), where the composite Goal scores are 83 and 92, respectively.
Top 5 ranking states:
- Himachal Pradesh, Tamilnadu
- Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Karnataka, Uttarakhand
Click here to view the Courtesy: PIB release to know more about SDG 2020-2021.
Significance of SDG India Index:
- The SDG index has become the primary tool for monitoring progress on the SDGs in the country.
- SDG index has simultaneously fostered competition among the States and Union Territories.
- SDG Index has inculcated the spirit of competitive federalism among the States and Union Territories.
There is a piece of political news related to MGNREGA and wage benefits.
Prelims GS – Governance
MGNREGA – Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005
- MGNREGA Scheme is under the Ministry of Rural Development
- MGNREGA aims at enhancing the livelihood of rural people by providing them with 100 days of wage employment to rural household people who are willing to do unskilled manual work
- It is implemented in all the districts of the Country
Role of Gram Sabha in MGNREGA:
The Gram Sabha (GS) has the following rights and responsibilities under the Act:
- It determines the order of priority of works in the meetings of the Gram Sabha keeping in view the potential of the local area, its needs, local resources
- Monitor the execution of works within the GP.
- It is the primary forum for the conduct of social audits.
Mains GS3 – Economic development
BENEFITS OF MGNREGA:
- Helps in Social Inclusion
- Right to Work is ensured
- Ponds, well and other assets are created and maintained
- Rural infrastructure is enhanced with the help of MGNREGA
- MGNREGA strengthens Panchayati Raj Institutions
If employment is provided in MNGREGA, beyond 5 kilometers, they have the right to get a 10% extra wage.
Click here to view the official FAQs.
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