Daily Current Affairs for UPSC Civil Services Exam – 05 February 2021

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC Civil Services Exam – 05 February 2021

In Today’s News:

  1. International Criminal Court.
  2. NATO.
  3. Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana crosses 1.75 crore beneficiaries.

1. International Criminal Court

News Summary

The International Criminal Court has convicted an Uganda based commander for war crimes and crimes against humanity.

Prelims GS – International Organisations

ICC:
  • International Criminal Court’s founding treaty is called the Rome Statute.
  • The Rome Statute took effect in 2002, upon ratification by 60 States.
  • Currently, there are 123 state parties to ICC.
  • India is neither a signatory to Rome Statute nor a state party to ICC.
  • Rome Statute grants the ICC jurisdiction over four main crimes:-
    • the crime of genocide,
    • crimes against humanity,
    • war crimes and
    • the crime of aggression.
  • The ICC is the world’s first permanent international criminal court.
  • International Criminal Court has its headquarters in The Hague, Netherlands.
  • While not a United Nations organization, the Court has a cooperation agreement with the United Nations.
  • The Court cooperates with both States Parties and non-States Parties.
  • The ICC is intended to complement, not to replace, national criminal systems; it prosecutes cases only when States do not are unwilling or unable to do so genuinely.
  • Thus, each country that becomes a State Party brings the world closer to an ICC universal protection under the Rome Statute system.
Crimes falling within the jurisdiction of ICC:

(Note: These statements are important from the exam point of view.)

  • The Crime of Genocide:
    • First, the crime of genocide is characterized by the specific intent to destroy in whole or in part a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group by killing its members or by other means: causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group, or forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.
  • Crimes against Humanity:
    • Second, the ICC can prosecute crimes against humanity, which are serious violations committed as part of a large-scale attack against any civilian population.
    • The 15 forms of crimes against humanity listed in the Rome Statute include offenses such as murder, rape, imprisonment, enforced disappearances, enslavement – particularly of women and children, sexual slavery, torture, apartheid, and deportation.
  • War crimes:
    • Third, war crimes which are grave breaches of the Geneva conventions in the context of armed conflict and include, for instance, the use of child soldiers; the killing or torture of persons such as civilians or prisoners of war; intentionally directing attacks against hospitals, historic monuments, or buildings dedicated to religion, education, art, science or charitable purposes.
  • The crime of Aggression:
    • Finally, the fourth crime falling within the ICC’s jurisdiction is the crime of aggression.
    • It is the use of armed force by a State against the sovereignty, integrity, or independence of another State.
    • The definition of this crime was adopted through amending the Rome Statute at the first Review Conference of the Statute in Kampala, Uganda, in 2010.

Click here to view the official website of ICC.

2. NATO

News Summary

NATO’s Secretary-General has urged the Taliban to end violence.

Prelims GS – International Relations

NATO:
  • The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is an alliance of 30 countries from North America and Europe committed to fulfilling the goals of the North Atlantic Treaty signed on 4 April 1949.
  • In accordance with the Treaty, the fundamental role of NATO is to safeguard the freedom and security of its member countries by political and military means.
  • NATO is playing an increasingly important role in crisis management and peacekeeping.
  • The two official languages of NATO are English and French.
  • India is not a part of the NATO alliance.
  • Headquarters: Brussels, Belgium.

Click here to view the official website of NATO.

3. Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana crosses 1.75 crore beneficiaries.

News Summary

PMMVY scheme number of beneficiaries has crossed 1.75 crores and a sum of  ₹5,931.95 crores was paid to these 1.75 crore eligible women beneficiaries.

Prelims GS – Governance

PMMVY:
  • Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana  (PMMVY) is a Maternity Benefit Programme that is implemented in all the districts of the country in accordance with the provision of the National Food Security Act, 2013.
  • PMMVY is a Maternal Welfare Scheme.
  • Implementing Agency: Ministry of Women and Child Development.
  • Under PMMVY, a cash incentive of Rs. 5000/– would be provided directly in the account of Pregnant Women and Lactating Mothers(PW&LM) for the first living child of the family subject to their fulfilling specific conditions relating to Maternal and Child Health.
  • Cash incentive of Rs 5000 in three installments
    • i.e. first installment of Rs 1000/ – on early registration of pregnancy at the Anganwadi Centre (AWC) / approved Health facility as may be identified by the respective administering State / UT,
    • the second installment of Rs 2000/ – after six months of pregnancy on receiving at least one ante-natal check-up (ANC) and
    • the third installment of Rs 2000/ – after childbirth is registered and the child has received the first cycle of BCG, OPV, DPT, and Hepatitis – B, or its equivalent/ substitute.
  • The eligible beneficiaries would receive the incentive given under the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) for Institutional delivery and the incentive received under JSY would be accounted towards maternity benefits so that on average a woman gets Rs 6000.
  • All Pregnant Women and Lactating Mothers, excluding PW&LM who are in regular employment with the Central Government or the State Governments or PSUs or those who are in receipt of similar benefits under any law for the time being in force, are eligible for the scheme.
  • All eligible Pregnant Women and Lactating Mothers who have their pregnancy on or after 01.01.2017 for the first child in the family are the target beneficiaries.
Objectives of PMMVY:
  1. Providing partial compensation for the wage loss in terms of cash incentive s so that the woman can take adequate rest before and after delivery of the first living child.
  2. The cash incentive provided would lead to improved health-seeking behavior amongst Pregnant Women and Lactating Mothers (PW& LM).

Click here to view the PMMVY Implementation guidelines document and click here to view the courtesy govt. official Vikaspedia.

 

 

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