Argutes

Daily Current Affairs for UPSC Civil Services Exam – 12 November 2021

1. National Legal Services Day

The National Legal Services Day (NLSD) is celebrated on 9th November every year to spread awareness for ensuring reasonable fair and justice procedures for all citizens.

Insights

  1. NLSD was first started by the Supreme Court of India in 1995 to provide help and support to poor and weaker sections of society.
  2. Free legal services are provided in matters before Civil, Criminal, and Revenue Courts, Tribunals, or any other authority exercising judicial or quasi-judicial functions.
  3. It is observed to make the citizens of the country aware of the various provisions under the Legal Services Authorities Act and the rights of the litigants.

Constitutional Provisions:

Article 39A of the Constitution of India provides that State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice on a basis of equal opportunity, and shall in particular, provide free legal aid, by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way, to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disability.

Articles 14 and 22(1) also make it obligatory for the State to ensure equality before the law and a legal system that promotes justice on a basis of equal opportunity to all.

Legal Services Institutions

  1. National Legal Services Authority was constituted under the Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987. The Chief Justice of India is the Patron-in-Chief.
  2. State Legal Services Authority is headed by the Chief Justice of the State High Court who is its Patron-in-Chief.
  3. District Legal Services Authority. The District Judge of the District is its ex-officio Chairman.
  4. Persons Eligible for Getting Free Legal Services
    • Women and children
    • Members of SC/ST
    • Industrial workmen
    • Victims of mass disasters, violence, flood, drought, earthquake, industrial disasters.
    • Disabled persons
    • Persons in custody
    • Those persons who have an annual income of less than the amount prescribed by the respective State Government.
    • Victims of Trafficking in Human beings or begar.

2. Shramik Mitra scheme

  1. Delhi government launched Shramik Mitra scheme for assisting the construction workers.
  2. The main objective of the scheme is to provide information about various state government schemes to the construction workers in the state.
  3. It aims to ensure that each worker gets the applicable scheme benefit in the state.
  4. This scheme will cover all the registered construction workers in the state.
  5. Under this scheme the state government will appoint about 800 ‘Shramik Mitras’ in the state.
  6. These Shramik Mitras would reach out to each construction worker and provide information about the state government schemes.
  7. All the construction workers registered under the construction board will be covered under this scheme.
  8. Shramik Mitras would also ensure enrolment of eligible workers under the applicable scheme.
  9. They would also help the workers as required till they get the scheme benefit.
  10. 3-4 Shramik Mitras would be appointed in all the wards for assisting the workers in that ward.
  11. Training would be provided to the Shramik Mitras under the scheme.

3. Legal Metrology (Packaged Commodities) Rules 2011

The central government has amended the Legal Metrology (Packaged Commodities) Rules 2011 making a declaration of maximum retail price (MRP) in Indian currency inclusive of all taxes on pre-packed commodities and date of manufacture mandatory. The amendments are to come into effect from 1st April 2022.

Insights

  1. To safeguard the interests of consumers, the Department of Consumer Affairs has omitted Rule 5 of the Legal Metrology (Packaged Commodities), Rules 2011 defining the Schedule II prescribing the pack sizes of various types of commodities.
  2. A new provision has been introduced to indicate the unit sale price on pre-packed commodities, which will allow easier comparison of the prices of the commodities at the time of purchase.
  3. This move has allowed the manufacturer, packer, and importer to declare the MRP on the pre-packed commodities in a simplified manner.
  4. Earlier such declarations could be denoted as ‘N’ or ‘U’ only. Now the quantities can be expressed in terms of the number or unit or piece or pair or set or such other word which represents the quantity in the package.
  5. This will remove the ambiguity of the declaration of quantity sold by number in pre-packed commodities

4. MPLADS Scheme

  1. The Union Cabinet approved the restoration of the Member of Parliament Local Area Development Scheme (MPLADS) for the remaining part of the current financial year till 2025-26, which will have a total financial implication of 17,417.00 crores.
  2. The MPLAD scheme was temporarily put on hold in April last year, after the outbreak of Covid-19, and the funds were placed with the finance ministry to deal with the pandemic.
  3.  The scheme will continue till 2025-26.

Insights

  1. Launched in December 1993.
  2. The MPLADS is a Plan Scheme fully funded by the Government of India.
  3. The annual MPLADS fund entitlement per MP constituency is Rs. 5 crores.
  4. MPs are to recommend every year, works costing at least 15 percent of the MPLADS entitlement for the year for areas inhabited by Scheduled Caste population and 7.5 percent for areas inhabited by S.T. population.
  5. Funds are released in the form of grants-in-aid directly to the district authorities.
  6. The funds released under the scheme are non-lapsable.
  7. The liability of funds not released in a particular year is carried forward to the subsequent years, subject to eligibility.
  8. The MPs have a recommendatory role under the scheme.
  9. At least 10% of the projects under implementation in the district are to be inspected every year by the district authority.

5. Nutrition Smart Village

As part of Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav, to commemorate the 75th year of Independence of India a program on “Nutrition Smart Village” will be initiated to strengthen the Poshan Abhiyan.

Insights

  1. This new initiative aims to reach out to 75 villages across India through the network of All India Coordinated Research Project on Women in Agriculture (AICRP-WIA) which is in operation at 13 centers in 12 States of India besides the coordinating institute located at Bhubaneswar.
  2. The initiative has been undertaken in line with the Prime Minister’s call to all the academicians, agricultural scientists, and all the institutions to adopt and transform 75 villages.
  3. A total of 75 villages will be adopted by AICRP centers and ICAR-CIWA, for which the AICRP centers will adopt 5 villages each with the remaining to be adopted by ICAR-CIWA with an aim to develop 75 Nutri-Smart villages.
  4. The objectives of the initiative are promoting nutritional awareness, education, and behavioral change in rural areas involving farm women and school children, harnessing traditional knowledge through the local recipe to overcome malnutrition, and implementing nutrition-sensitive agriculture through homestead agriculture and Nutri-garden.

6. Epsilon 5 rocket

Japan’s solid-fuel Epsilon 5 rocket successfully put nine small satellites into orbit Nov. 9, including an orbital debris removal technology demonstrator, in a rideshare launch that has been postponed twice since early October.

Insights

  1. It released the nine satellites one by one as scheduled at an altitude of about 600 kilometers.
  2. This mission marks the fifth flight of the Epsilon rocket, which first flew in September 2013.
  3. The four previous Epsilon launches — which took place in September 2013, December 2016, January 2018 and January 2019 — were all successful, according to JAXA data.
  4. Epsilon 5 released the primary payload, Rapid Innovative Payload Demonstration Satellite No. 2 (RAISE-2), about 52 minutes after launch and the remaining eight were released one hour later, according to JAXA.
  5. While eight of the nine satellites were manufactured by a variety of Japanese companies and universities, the remaining one, NanoDragon, was developed by the Vietnam National Space Center.
  6. RAISE-2, built by Mitsubishi Electric Corp., will test six different space technologies, including a small sensor called MARIN
  7. MARIN is designed to gauge the position, altitude and velocity of orbiting satellites.
  8. Debris Removal Unprecedented Micro Satellite (DRUMS), a 62-kilogram spacecraft that will test techniques for capturing pieces of space debris to remove them from the space environment.
  9. DRUMS, built by Kawasaki Heavy Industries, will deploy a small target subsatellite, which it will then move away from before returning to rendezvous using automated visual navigation systems.
  10. Vietnam’s NanoDragon is a CubeSat that weighs 3.8 kilograms.
  11. The satellite, developed by the Vietnam National Space Center (VNSC) under the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, is part of VNSC’s made in Vietnam small satellite development roadmap

7. Global Resilience Index Initiative

Recently, a global coalition of ten organizations launched the Global Resilience Index Initiative (GRII).

Insights

  1. It was launched during the UNFCCC Conference of Parties (CoP) 26 adaptation day 8th November 2021.
  2. It will be the world’s first curated, open-source reference index.
  3. It has been launched to build a universal model for assessing resilience to climate risks.
  4. It will provide reference data on climate and natural hazard risks to inform and protect populations and economies.
  5. It can be used in aggregated risk management across sectors and geographies.

Coalition for Climate Resilient Investment

  1. The outcomes of this risk analysis will help close the insurance protection gap and direct investment and aid to where they are needed the most.
  2. It will help global economic sectors understand, in concrete terms, the value of building climate resilience and the costs of doing nothing, this will address the data emergency that is contributing to the climate crisis.
  3. It will enable asset owners to compare portfolio risks across geographies and hazards, as well as helping countries to prioritize national adaptation investments.

8. Submarine VELA

Recently, the fourth Scorpene Submarine ‘INS Vela’ of Project P-75 has been delivered to the Indian Navy.

Scorpene-Class Submarine

  1. The submarines in the Project-75 Scorpene-Class are powered by diesel-electric propulsion systems.
  2. Scorpene is one of the most sophisticated submarines, capable of undertaking multifarious missions including anti-surface ship warfare, anti-submarine warfare, intelligence gathering, mine laying, and area surveillance.
  3. The Scorpene-class is the Navy’s first modern conventional submarine series in almost two decades since INS Sindhushastra, procured from Russia in July 2000.

Project 75

  1. It is a program by the Indian Navy that entails building six Scorpene-Class attack submarines.
  2. The design of the Kalvari class of submarines is based on the French Scorpene class of submarines.
  3. It is given support by the Department of Defence Production (Ministry of Defence) and the Indian Navy throughout its various phases of construction.
  4. The Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) is manufacturing six Scorpene submarines with technical assistance from the Naval Group of France under a USD 3.75 bn deal signed in October 2005.
  5. MDL is a defense public sector undertaking shipyard under the Ministry of Defence.

9. Leonids Meteor Shower

  1. The annual Leonids Meteor Shower has begun. This year’s shower is active between November 6 and 30, with peak activity expected on November 17.
  2. The peak time of a meteor shower comes when the Earth passes through the densest part of the debris.
  3. On November 17, bits of the cosmic debris will appear to viewers from Earth like a display of fireworks in the sky.
  4. The debris that forms this meteor shower originates from a small comet called 55P/Tempel-Tuttle in the constellation Leo, which takes 33 years to orbit the sun.

About Leonids

  1. The Leonids are considered to be a major shower that features the fastest meteors, which typically travel at speeds of 71 km per second, although the rates are often as low as 15 meteors per hour,
  2. The Leonids are also called fireballs and earth gazer meteors.
  3. Fireballs, because of their bright colors, and earth gazer, because they streak close to the horizon.
  4. The light—which is why a meteor is called a shooting star — is a result of the friction between the meteorite and the molecules present in the Earth’s atmosphere because of which it burns.
  5. Every 33 years, a Leonid shower turns into a meteor storm, which is when hundreds to thousands of meteors can be seen every hour.
  6. In 1966, a Leonid storm offered views of thousands of meteors that fell through the Earth’s atmosphere per minute during a period of 15 minutes, NASA notes.
  7. The showers are visible on any cloudless night when the Moon is not very bright.
  8. Ideally, the viewing location should have no light pollution; the farther away from cities the better.

10. HARBINGER 2021

  1. RBI will be organizing its first global hackathon on the theme of digital payments.
  2. HARBINGER 2021–Innovation for Transformation with the theme ‘Smarter Digital Payments’ will see participants identify and develop solutions.
  3. The hackathon is now inviting innovative ideas in the payment and settlement system, registration for which can be done till November 15.
  4. The participants in the hackathon will get the opportunity to be mentored by industry experts, exhibit their innovative solutions before an eminent jury, and win prizes in each category.
  5. The winner will get Rs 40 lakh, and the runner-up will be awarded Rs 20 lakh.

11. Delhi Declaration

  1. The Third Regional Security Dialogue on Afghanistan was held on 10 November 2021 in New Delhi in an expanded format.
  2. The National Security Advisers / Secretaries of the National Security Councils of the Republic of India, the Islamic Republic of Iran, the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Russian Federation, the Republic of Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and the Republic of Uzbekistan participated in the meeting.
  3. The participants discussed the evolving situation in Afghanistan, especially the security situation and its regional and global ramifications.
  4. The sides paid special attention to the current political situation in Afghanistan and threats arising from terrorism, radicalization, and drug trafficking as well as the need for humanitarian assistance.

Highlights of the Meet

  1. Reiterated strong support for a peaceful, secure, and stable Afghanistan while emphasizing the respect for sovereignty, unity and territorial integrity, and non-interference in its internal affairs.
  2. Expressed deep concern over the suffering of the people of Afghanistan arising from the security situation in Afghanistan and condemned the terrorist attacks in Kunduz, Kandahar, and Kabul.
  3. Emphasized that Afghanistan’s territory should not be used for sheltering, training, planning, or financing any terrorist acts.
  4. Called for collective cooperation against the menace of radicalization, extremism, separatism, and drug trafficking in the region.
  5. Emphasized the importance of ensuring that the fundamental rights of women, children, and minority communities are not violated.
  6. Reiterated commitment to provide assistance to Afghanistan to prevent the spread of COVID-19.
  7. Reiterated the importance of their dialogue and agreed to remain engaged with each other in the future.
  8. The participants thanked the Republic of India for holding the Third Regional Security Dialogue on Afghanistan in New Delhi. The participants agreed to hold the next round in 2022.

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12. Onake Obavva

Onake Obavva died fighting the troops of Hyder Ali, a ruler of the Mysore Kingdom and father of Tipu Sultan, when he invaded the Chitradurga Fort, which was ruled by Madakari Nayaka in the 18th century.

Chitradurga Fort, locally known as Elusuttina Kote, (the fort of seven circles in Kannada), is situated in Chitradurga, 200 km northwest of Bengaluru.

Insights

  1. Obavva is considered to be the epitome of Kannada pride and celebrated along with other women warriors of the Karnataka state.
  2. Onake Obavva was the wife of soldier Kahale Mudda Hanuma, who was the guard of the fort.
  3. Obbava killed by Hyder Ali’s soldiers
  4.  After Obbava’s attack on Hyder Ali’s soldiers, her husband went up to the fort and blew his horn to alert the army about the invaders.
  5. Madakari Nayaka’s soldiers rushed and killed everyone in Hyder Ali’s small troop.
  6. Onake Obavva’s courage and quick thinking have been praised by the people of Karnataka, especially in the Chitradurga region, where a stadium is named after her.