In Today’s News:
- Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups(PVTG).
- UNSC asks to end violence in Gaza.
- Line of Actual Control.
- Effect of the pandemic on the Women workers.
- Tribunal Reforms Ordinance.
1. Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups
COVID-19 situation has appeared to have worsened in certain areas among the Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups in Odisha.
Prelims GS – Governance
- There are certain tribal communities that have the existence of a pre-agricultural level of technology, stagnant or declining population growth, extremely low level of literacy, and a subsistence level of the economy. They are known as Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups(PVTG)s.
- PVTGs are the most vulnerable among the tribal groups and they live in remote and difficult areas in small and scattered hamlets/habitats.
- There are 75 tribal groups who have been categorized by the Ministry of Home Affairs as Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTG)s. (Note: 2019 UPSC civil service prelims exam question)
- PVTGs reside in 18 States and UT of A&N Islands.
- The Ministry of Tribal Affairs implements the Scheme of “Development of Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs)” exclusively for them.
- Under the scheme, Conservation-cum-Development (CCD)/Annual Plans are to be prepared by each State/UT for their PVTGs based on their need assessment, which is then appraised and approved by the Project Appraisal Committee of the Ministry.
- Activities for the development of PVTGs are undertaken in Sectors of Education, Health, Livelihood and Skill Development, Agricultural Development, Housing & Habitat, Conservation of Culture, etc.
Click here to view the list of PVTGs statewise on the official website.
2. UNSC asks to end violence in Gaza
United Nations Security Council met amidst the escalating conflicts in the Gaza strip between Israel and Palestine where there have been severe death tolls daily.
Prelims GS – International Relations
- UN Security Council has the responsibility of maintaining peace and security in the world.
- It is one of the 6 principal organs of the UN.
- UNSC has 15 members. i.e. 5 permanent members and 10 non-permanent members.
- Each member has one vote.
- 5 permanent members are:
- the United Kingdom and
- the United States.
- These 5 permanent members have the power to veto any resolution in UNSC.
- 10 non-permanent members are elected by the UN General Assembly for a two-year term.
- 10 non-permanent members seats are distributed on a regional basis as given below:
- 5 for African and Asian States
- 1 for the Eastern European States
- 2 for Latin American and the Caribbean States
- 2 for Western European and other states.
- India will need the vote of 2/3rd members of the UN General Assembly to become a non-permanent member for a two-year term.
- India has won the non-permanent member seat of the United Nations Security Council by securing 184 votes out of 192 votes.
- India has a term of two years starting from January 2021 in the UNSC.
- India has already been a non-permanent member of UNSC for seven terms. So, this is not the first time. (Important point for Prelims)
Mains GS2 – International Relations
India’s agenda in UNSC as a non-permanent member:
- India can use its term as a non-permanent member to enhance its position as a responsible and constructive member of international society.
- It should emphasize and strengthen multilateralism in UNSC meetings.
- India should try to make progress on the elimination of weapons of mass destruction in a non-discriminatory manner.
- India should highlight the UN Charter and promote the State’s sovereignty and should prevent the interference of outside countries in the domestic affairs of the States.
- Thus, India should use this opportunity to enhance the country’s reputation.
For more information on UNSC, click here to view the official website.
3. Line of Actual Control
It has been a year since the first news of tensions broke between India and China on LAC in Ladakh.
Prelims GS – International Relations
- LAC refers to the Line of Actual Control.
- LAC is a clear demarcation between Indian and Chinese controlled areas
- It is divided into three sectors
- Eastern sector: Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim
- Middle Sector: Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
- Western Sector: Ladakh
4. Effect of the pandemic on the women workers
In the ongoing pandemic, women have been subjected to severe burdens due to disruptions to the life and economy.
Mains GS3 – Economic Development/GS1 – Women Empowerment
Measures to help women take up employment:
- Women tended to lose work in any kind of industry disproportionately during the pandemic.
- Household work also increased manifold for the women during the pandemic.
- To facilitate the employment of women, community kitchens should be set up through coordinated efforts by States.
- Also, prioritizing the opening of schools and Anganwadi centers will help women with children to take up employment.
- There is a necessity for adequate public investment in the social infrastructure.
- A universal basic service program is required that will not only fill the existing vacancies in the social sector but also should expand public investments in health, education, child care, elderly care, etc.
- These initiatives besides helping women take up employment will also help in alleviating their domestic burdens and overcoming their nutritional deficits.
5. Tribunal Reforms Ordinance
Tribunals Reforms Ordinance has been challenged in the Supreme Court. The Ordinance is criticized by several critics as it not only bypassed the usual legislative process but also was passed without much stakeholder consultation.
Prelims GS – Polity/Governance
Tribunal Reforms Ordinance 2021:
- The Tribunals Reforms (Rationalisation and Conditions of Service) Ordinance, 2021 was promulgated on April 4, 2021.
- It dissolves certain existing appellate bodies and transfers their functions (such as adjudication of appeals) to other existing judicial bodies.
- The Ordinance amends the Finance Act 2017 to include provisions related to the composition of search-cum-selection committees and term of office of tribunal members in the Act itself.
- The Ordinance specifies that the term of office for the Chairperson of the tribunals will be of four years or till the attainment of the age of seventy years, whichever is earlier.
- For other members of the tribunals, the term will be of four years or till the age of sixty-seven years, whichever is earlier.
Courtesy: PRS official website.
Tribunals in the Constitution of India:
- Part XIV A of the Indian Constitution deals with Tribunals.
- Part XIV A was inserted through 42nd Amendment Act 1976.
- Article 323A deals with the Administrative Tribunals.
- Article 323 A Clause 1 says that “Parliament may, by law, provide for the adjudication or trial by administrative tribunals of disputes and complaints with respect to recruitment and conditions of service of persons appointed to public services and posts in connection with the affairs of the Union or of any State or of any local or other authority within the territory of India or under the control of the Government of India or of any corporation owned or controlled by the Government”
- Article 323B deals with Tribunals for other matters.
Click here to view more on the Constitution of India Official document.
Mains GS2 – Governance
National Tribunal Commission(NTC) – need of the hour:
- National Tribunal Commission(NTC) is yet to be constituted by the Centre.
- NTC if constituted will be an independent umbrella body overseeing the functioning of Tribunals, the appointment of members and it will take care of the overall administrative and infrastructural needs of the tribunals.
- The idea of NTC was first initiated in L. Chandra Kumar vs Union of India(1997) but till now NTC is not implemented.
- NTC could help in the separation of administration and judicial functions of the various tribunals.
- NTC will help in the independence of tribunals.
- NTC could improve the performance standards of the tribunal system.
- As of now, the Finance Ministry is vested with the responsibility of Tribunals.
- NTC if established will definitely help in restructuring and improving the efficiency of the tribunal system.
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