In Today’s News:
- Antimicrobial resistance
- Nasha Mukt Bharat Abhiyaan
- Dragon fruit
1. Antimicrobial resistance
The reason for the development of multi-drug resistance by the bacteria has been observed by the researchers at IISER Pune.
Prelims GS – Science & Technology
- Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) occurs when bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites change over time and no longer respond to medicines making infections harder to treat and increasing the risk of disease spread, severe illness, and death.
- As a result of drug resistance, antibiotics and other antimicrobial medicines become ineffective and infections become increasingly difficult or impossible to treat.
- The rapid global spread of multi- and pan-resistant bacteria (also known as “superbugs”) that causes infections are not treatable with existing antimicrobial medicines such as antibiotics.
- Some Examples:
- WHO estimates that, in 2018, there were about half a million new cases of rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB) identified globally, of which the vast majority have multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB), a form of tuberculosis that is resistant to the two most powerful anti-TB drugs.
- Resistance to fluoroquinolone antibiotics in E. coli, used for the treatment of urinary tract infections, is widespread.
Causes of AMR:
- AMR occurs naturally over time, usually through genetic changes.
- Antimicrobial-resistant organisms are found in people, animals, food, plants, and the environment (in water, soil, and air).
- They can spread from person to person or between people and animals, including from food of animal origin.
- The main drivers of antimicrobial resistance include the misuse and overuse of antimicrobials; lack of access to clean water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) for both humans and animals; poor infection and disease prevention and control in health-care facilities and farms; poor access to quality, affordable medicines, vaccines and diagnostics; lack of awareness and knowledge; and lack of enforcement of legislation.
Click here to know more about AMR on the official website of WHO.
2. Nasha Mukt Bharat Abhiyaan
The Minister for Social Justice & Empowerment Shri Thawaarchand Gehlot in the presence of Ministers of State, Social Justice & Empowerment, Shri Krishan Pal Gurjar, Shri Ramdas Athawale & Shri Ratan Lal Kataria launched the website for the Nasha Mukt Bharat Abhiyaan(NMBA) on the occasion of International Day Against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking on 26th June 2021.
Prelims GS – Governance
Nasha Mukt Bharat Abhiyaan:
- The ‘Nasha Mukt Bharat Abhiyaan’ or a ‘Drugs-Free India Campaign’ was flagged off on 15th August 2020 across 272 districts of the country found to be most vulnerable based on the data available from various sources.
- The focal points of the Campaign are preventive, mass education and sensitization, capacity building of service providers, positive partnership with educational institutions, and augmentation of treatment, rehabilitation, and counseling facilities.
- The Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment, which is the nodal ministry for Drug Demand Reduction, implements various programs for drug abuse prevention across the country.
Click here to view the PIB release.
3. Dragon fruit
In a major boost to the export of exotic fruit, a consignment of fiber and mineral-rich ‘Dragon Fruit’, also referred as Kamalam, has been exported to Dubai
Prelims GS – Environment
- Scientific name: Hylocereusundatus.
- The dragon fruit is grown in countries such as Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, the USA, and Vietnam.
- Dragon fruit production commenced in India in the early 1990s and was grown as home gardens.
- At present, dragon fruit is grown mostly in Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Odisha, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
- The cultivation requires less water and can be grown in various kinds of soils.
- There are three main varieties of dragon fruit: white flesh with pink skin, red flesh with pink skin, and white flesh with yellow skin.
- The fruit contains fiber, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants.
- It can help in repairing the cell damage caused by oxidative stress and reduce inflammation, and also improving the digestive system.
- Since the fruit has spikes and petals resembling a lotus, it is also referred to as ‘Kamalam’.
Click here to view the official PIB release.
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