Indian States and their Features

Introduction

India, being a Union of States, has its own history and diversity. It has 28 states and 8 union territories. This article gives you a better understanding about the Indian states, as it focuses on the history & geography, important rivers, famous tourist spots, agriculture, fairs and festivals of the states. The aspirants can answer frequent questions like what are the commercial crops grown in each state. It also provides the judiciary and literary rate of the state which will be greatly helpful for your prelims and mains examination as well as in the interview. The complete details about the Union Territories of India will be detailed in the upcoming article.

States and Capitals

S.noSTATECAPITALJUDICIARYLITERACY RATE
1Andhra PradeshVisakhapatnam, Amaravati and KurnoolThe High Court of Hyderabad at Hyderabad67.41%
2Arunachal PradeshItanagarThe High Court of Guwahati at Guwahati66.95%
3AssamDispurThe High Court of Guwahati at Guwahati73.18%
4BiharPatnaThe High Court of Patna at Patna71.04%
5ChhattisgarhRaipurThe High Court of Chhattisgarh at Bilaspur71.04%
6GoaPanaji The High Court of Bombay at Mumbai (with a bench at Panaji)88.7%
7GujaratGandhinagarThe High Court of Gujarat at Ahmedabad78.03%
8HaryanaChandigarh The High Court of Punjab and Haryana at Chandigarh75.55%
9Himachal PradeshShimlaThe High Court of Himachal Pradesh at Shimla82.8%
10JharkhandRanchiThe High Court of Jharkhand at Ranchi66.41%
11KarnatakaBengaluruThe High Court of  Karnataka at Bengaluru75.36%
12KeralaThiruvananthapuramThe High Court of Kerala at Ernakulam94%
13Madhya PradeshBhopalThe High Court of Madhya Pradesh at Jabalpur69.32%
14MaharashtraMumbaiThe High Court of Bombay at  Mumbai82.34%
15ManipurImphalThe High Court of  Manipur at Imphal76.94%
16MeghalayaShillongThe High Court of Meghalaya at Shillong74.43%
17MizoramAizawlThe High Court of Guwahati at Guwahati (with a bench at Aizwal)91.33%
18NagalandKohimaThe High Court of Guwahati at Guwahati (with a bench at Kohima)79.55%
19OdishaBhubaneswarThe High Court of Orissa at Cuttack72.87%
20PunjabChandigarhThe High Court of Punjab at Chandigarh75.84%
21RajasthanJaipurThe High Court of Rajasthan at Jodhpur (with a bench at Jaipur)66.11%
22SikkimGangtokThe High Court of Sikkim at Gangtok81.42%
23Tamil NaduChennaiThe High Court of Madras at Chennai80.09%
24TelanganaHyderabadThe High Court of Hyderabad at Hyderabad66.46%
25TripuraAgartalaThe High Court of  Tripura at Agartala87.22%
26UttarakhandDehradunThe High Court of Uttarakhand at Nainital78.82%
27Uttar PradeshLucknowThe High Court of Allahabad at Allahabad67.68%
28West BengalKolkataThe High Court of Calcutta at Kolkata76.2%


Andhra Pradesh

Official Language – Telugu and Urdu

History and Geography

  • In the early days, Andra Pradesh was mentioned in Sanskrit epics such as Aitereya Brahmana as Andhras, originally an Aryan race who lived in North India migrated to the south of the Vindhyas and later mixed with non-Aryans. Andhra Desa was begun in 236 BC, the year of Ashoka’s death.
  • After independence, Telugu speaking areas were separated from the Madras Presidency and a new Andhra state came into being on 1st October 1953. The State Reorganisation Act 1956 merged Telugu speaking areas of Hyderabad with Andhra and Hyderabad became the capital of the state.
  • According to the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act 2014, also known as the Telangana Act, the bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh into two states, Telangana and residuary Andhra Pradesh took place.
  • After bifurcation, Hon’ble Chief Minister Shri. Jagan Mogan Reddy set up executive, legislative, and judicial capitals (tri-capital) at Visakhapatnam, Amaravati, and Kurnool respectively.
  • It borders Telangana, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and the Bay of Bengal.

Rivers

  • Andhra Pradesh is a riverine state with 40 major, medium, and minor rivers.
  • Godavari, Krishna, Vamsadhara, Nagavali, and Pennar are the major interstate rivers.
  • Godavari River enters at Bhurgampad Mandal of the state and flows 250 km eastward before joining the Bay of Bengal.

Agriculture

  • Agriculture is the main occupation for 62 % of the people in the state.
  • The major crops in the state are jowar, bajra, millets, pulses, ragi, cotton, sugarcane, castor, and tobacco.
  • Some important forest products are eucalyptus, cashew, bamboo, teak, softwood, and casuarina.

Fairs and Festivals

  • Temple fairs of this state are very famous. People can always experience the significance of the customs and traditions that still subsists in all the villages of Andhra Pradesh.
  • Some of the unique fairs and festivals celebrated in this state include Bathukamma Festival, Varalakshmi Viratam, Toli Ekadasi, Antarvedi Fair, Vaikunta Ekadashi, Jatra Edamma, Gollagattu Jatra, Chandana Yatra, Makar Sankranti.

Tourism

Major tourist attractions are Charminar, Venkateswara temple Tirumala Tirupati, Buddha stupa at Nagarjunakonda, Kanaka Durga temple at Vijayawada, Sri Sita Rama temple Bhadrachalam, Araku valley, Nagarjuna Sagar, Sri Varaha Narasimha Swamy Temple at Simhachalam, Thousand pillar temple, and Fort in Warangal.

Arunachal Pradesh

Official Language – Miji, Apotanji, Merdukpen, Tagin, Adi, Honpa, Banging-Nishi

History and Geography

  • Arunachal Pradesh was known as the North-East frontier agency, which had become a full-fledged state on February 20, 1987.
  • Itanagar is the capital, which was built in the 14th century A.D.
  • Arunachal Pradesh has been mentioned in the literature of Kalika Purana and Mahabharata.
  • The widely scattered archaeology remains at different places in Arunachal Pradesh which bear testimony to its rich cultural heritage.

Rivers

  • The Brahmaputra is a major river.
  • Siang River is a major tributary of Brahmaputra; Subansiri river emerging from the Himalayas is also the biggest tributary.
  • Dibang River, flowing in the same valley, a holy source for the Idu-Mishmi tribe, on which a Dibang Multi-Purpose Project, a major hydropower project has been proposed.
  • Tirap district derives its name from the river and offers a variety of fish and a wide range of seafood.

Agriculture

  • Agriculture is the mainstay of the people of the state and they mainly depend on Jhum cultivation.
  • The main crops cultivated in this state are rice, maize, millet, wheat, pulses, sugarcane, ginger, and oilseeds.
  • They cultivate cash crops like potato and horticulture crops like apple, orange, and pineapples.

Fairs and Festivals

  • Mopin and Solung of the Adis
  • Lassar of the Monpas
  • Boori- boot of the Hill Miris
  • Si-Donyi of the Tagins
  • Reh of the Idu- Mishmis
  • Nyuokum of the Nyishis
  • Dree of the Apatanis is some commonly celebrated festivals.

Tourism

The famous tourist spots are Tawang, Dirang, Bomdila, Tipi, Itanagar, Malinithan, Likabali, Pasighat, Along, Tezu, Miami, Roing, Daporijo, Namdapha, Bhismaknagar, Parshuram Kund, and Khonsa.

Assam 

Official Language – Assamese

History & Geography

  • Austric, Mongolian, Dravidian, and Aryan came to this land long ago and they contributed to its rich composite culture.
  • Assam covers an area of 78,438 square kilometres which represents 2.39 % of the total land area of the country.
  • It is the gateway to the North-Eastern states. The state is surrounded by Bhutan, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Nagaland, Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram, Bangladesh, and West Bengal.

Rivers

  • The Brahmaputra is an antecedent river older than the Himalayas.
  • Noadehing, Buridehing, Desang, Dikhow, Bhogdoi, Dhansiri (South), Kopilli, Kulsi, Krishnai, Dhdhnoi, Jinjiran are the main tributaries on the south bank and Subansiri, Ronganadi, Dikrong, Buroi, Borgong, Jiabharali, Dhansiri (North) Puthimari, Manas, Beki, Aie, Sonkosh are the main tributaries on the North bank.
  • Barak river originating in the Barail Range flows through the Cachar district which enters into this state with the name Surma River.

Agriculture

  • Assam has abundant agricultural land and water resources and has achieved a 40% increase in the contribution of agriculture to state GDP.
  • Major Fruit crops of the state are  Pineapple, Papaya, Banana, Orange, Guava, Litchi, Assam lemon, Jack fruit and Mango.
  • Major tuber crops like Sweet Potato, Tapioca, Potato and spices like Garlic, Chilli, Turmeric, Coriander, Black pepper, Ginger, Onion along with different types of Rabi and Kharif vegetables are grown in Assam.

Fairs and Festivals

  • Rongali Bihu or Bohag Bihu, coinciding with Assamese new year is the primary harvest festival.
  • Bihu is called Kangali Bihu or Kati Bihu.
  • The Bodos, the third largest tribal group, perform Kherai pooja as a festival and it is accompanied by a female dance performance.
  • Bathow is another important puja of the Bodos.

Tourism

  • Assam is one of the most attractive and beautiful states which is also known as the ‘land of red river and blue hills’ and it arises as a popular tourist hub for wildlife and eco-tourism because of its natural beauty and bounty, rich topography, the unique flora and fauna, virgin forest, green valleys, and proud hills.
  • It has 5 national parks, 3 bird sanctuaries, and 19 wildlife sanctuaries.

Bihar

Official Language – Hindi

History and Geography

  • Some great rulers before the Christian era, Bimbisara Udayin, Chandragupta Maurya, and the Emperor Ashoka of the Maurya dynasty, the Sunga and the Kanvas ruled Bihar.
  • During the medieval period, the Muslim rulers made inroads into the territory.
  • Bihar is bounded by Nepal, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, and Jharkhand. It is the 12th largest state by territory and the third-largest state by population.

Rivers

  • Ganga is the main river that enters the state from Chausa which formed the boundary of Bhojpur and Saran district.
  • Kali, Sone, Karmanasa, Gandak, Bagmati, Kosi and Punpun are major tributaries.
  • Ghaghra / Saryu originates from Nampa of Nepal and enters Bihar at Gopalgunj and joins River Ganga at Chhapra.
  • Gandak originates from Tibet and enters into the Indian Territory which flows in a southern direction and forms a boundary between Bihar and UP.
  • Other important rivers are Burhi Gandak, Bagmati, Mahananda, Kosi, Punpun, Karmanasa and Kamla.

Agriculture

  • Out of 93.60 lakh hectares geographical area, only 55.54 lakh hectares is the net cultivated area with a gross cultivated area of 72.95 lakh hectares.
  • Main food crops are wheat, maize, pulses, and paddy.
  • Cash crops are potato, tobacco, onion, chillies, oilseed, sugarcane, jute, and Mesta

Fairs and Festivals

The majority of people are Hindu, so the festivals observed here are Holi, Saraswati Puja, Durga Puja or Dusserah, Deepavali, Bhaiya Dooj. But there is one festival that is uniquely associated with Bihar is Chhath.

Tourism

  • Patna is a city abounding in the relics of the bygone ages.
  • The famous Mahendru Ghat in today’s Patna is the reminder of Mahendru (Ashoka’s brother) who had sailed from this very Ghat to Ceylon to preach Buddhism.
  • The Jalan Museum with a rare collection of curios is a famous tourist spot.
  • Sher Shah’s mosque in the heart of the city is a splendid example of Afghan architecture.
  • Takht Harmandir Saheb is of religious importance to the Sikhs and is believed to be the place of birth of the last Sikh guru, Govind Singh.

Chhattisgarh

Official Language – Hindi

History and Geography

  • Chhattisgarh is the ninth-largest and the 17th populous state.
  • It emerged from Madhya Pradesh and came into existence on 1st November 2000.
  • In ancient times, it was also called Dakshin – Kaushal.
  • The state is bounded by Jharkhand, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh.

Rivers

  • The State is divided into five river basins. They are Mahanadi Basin, Godavari Basin, Ganga Basin, Brahmani Basin drains, and Narmada Basin.
  • River Mahanadi forms the biggest river system in the state.
  • A small part of the Ganga basin, namely the river Son (sub-basin) falls within the state.
  • Another important river is the Indravati. The river and its tributaries are located in the Bastar area. It is a tributary of the Godavari which originates from Orissa.

Agriculture

  • The area under Kharif crop is around 47.60 lakh hectares and the rabi is 16.61 lakh hectares.
  • The main Kharif crop is paddy. Other important crops grown here are groundnut, pigeon pea, soybean, maize.
  • Important rabi crops are gram, Lathyrus, mustard, linseed, and wheat.

Fairs and Festivals

  • Bastar Dussehra is celebrated to worship Lord Rama. The festival celebrates the triumph of good over evil and the prosperity of the community.
  • Madai Festival is celebrated by the Charama and Kurna communities of Kanker district.
  • Champaran Mela, Narayanpur Mela, Goncha Festival, Teeja Festival are the other important festivals.

Tourism

  • The state has many ancient monuments, Buddhist sites, palaces, exquisitely carved temples, caves, rock paintings, hill plateaus, and waterfalls.
  • Sirpur is a proposed world heritage site, and Malhar has historical significance as they were visited by Xuanzang, the Chinese historian.
  • Notable and ancient temples in Chhattisgarh include Shri Ram Janki Temple at Setganga in Mungeli District, Bhoramedo temple near Kawardha in Kabirdham district, Vishnu temple at Janjgir, Chandrahasini Devi temple at Chandrapur, Rajivlochan temple at Rajim and Champaran in Raipur district,  Damudhara (Rishab Tirth) and Sivarinarayana Laxminarayana temple in Janjgir-Champa district.

Goa

Official Language – Marathi and Konkani

History and Geography

  • Goa is known for its rich historical heritage and it became the 25th state in the Indian Union in May 1987.
  • The early history of Goa was obscure. It was a part of the Satavahana empire followed by Kadampa, the Rashtrakutas, the Chalukyas, and the Shilaharas.
  • By the end of the 14th-century Muslim rule prevailed in Goa. In 1510 Alfonso de Albuquerque attacked and captured Goa.
  • Portuguese made the city of Panaji, the capital of Goa in 1843.
  • Even after the independence, Goa was under the control of the Portuguese and on 19 December 1961, Goa was liberated and emerged as a union territory with Daman and Diu.
  • Goa is situated on the Western coast of the Indian peninsula.

Rivers

  • Terekhol, Mandovi, Baga, Zuari, Colval, Saleri, Mandre, Harmal, Sal, Talpona, and Galjibag are the eleven rivers of Goa which are known as the lifelines of the state.
  • Of these 11 rivers, nine are prominent ones, flowing generally from East to West and these rivers originate in the Western Ghats but soon lose their energy as they wander through the midlands and the coastal plains to discharge into the Arabian Sea.

Agriculture

  • Goa faces problems for enough cultivable land to feed its own population. The coastal areas are exposed to salinity and do not qualify as good agricultural areas, while the inland areas are not productive enough.
  • Paddy is the main crop and other important crops are ragi, maize, jowar, bajra, and pulses.
  • Cash crops like coconut, cashew-nut, areca nut, mango, jackfruit, banana, pineapple are also grown in abundance.

Fairs and Festivals

  • Various festivals and events are celebrated like Christmas & New Year Celebrations, Monsoon Festival, and the Festival of Three Kings Feast.
  • The Christmas Celebration and New Year Celebration in Goa are world-famous and people from across the world come and enjoy the glamour of these memorable moments.
  • Diwali, Three Kings Feast, Sao Joao Festival, Ganesh Chaturthi, Shigmo, Feast of St. Francis Xavier are some other important festivals that have been celebrated in Goa.

Tourism

Colva, Calangute, Vagator, Baga, HarMal, Anjuna and Miramar beaches, Basilica of Bom Jesus and St. Cathedral churches at old Goa, Kavlem, Mardol, Mangeshi, Bandora temples, Aguada, Terekol, Cahpora, and Cabo de Rama forts, Dudhsagar and Hrvalem waterfalls and Mayen lake resort are some important tourist centers located in Goa.

Gujarat 

Official Language – Gujarati

History and Geography

  • The history of Gujarat goes back to 2000 BC because it is believed that Lord Krishna had left Mathura to settle on the West coast of Saurashtra which later came to be known as Dwarka.
  • Mauryas, Guptas, and other kings also ruled this region.
  • Gujarat witnessed progress and prosperity during the rule of Chalukyas.
  • Gujarat officially formed as a state in May 1960 as the result of the Bombay reorganization act of 1960.
  • It is situated on the West coast of India and the state is surrounded by the Arabian sea, Pakistan, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra.

Rivers

  • The Narmada has the longest course and one of the major rivers of India which run from east to west – the other major rivers are the Tapi and the Mahi.
  • Sabarmati is the largest river in Gujarat followed by the Tapi. Several riverfront embankments have been built on this river.
  • Kali River’s origin is Near Ravleshvar village. Sabarmati has its origin in Dhebar Lake in Rajasthan. The state’s biggest city Ahmedabad is situated on the bank of this river.
  • It has several tributaries like the Hathmati, Harnav, Sei, Watrak, and Wakal.
  • Mahi and Narmada originated from Madhya Pradesh.

Agriculture

  • Gujarat is the major producer of cotton, groundnut, and tobacco and important cash crops are paddy wheat and Bajra.
  • It provides inputs for important industries like textiles, oil and soap

Fairs and Festivals

  • Tarnetar is a fair (Tarnetar) to honour Lord Shiva.
  • Madhavrai fair has been held in Madhavpur near Porbandar in March/ April.
  • Janmashtami is the biggest annual fair, the birthday of Lord Krishna has been celebrated at Dwarka and Dakor with great enthusiasm.
  • Navratri, Jagannath rath Yatra famous chariot festival, Makar-Sankranti, Dang Darbar, Shamlaji fair and Bhavnath fair are popular in Gujarat.

Tourism

  • Some important tourist spots are Somnath temple, Bhadreshwar, Porbandar (birthplace of Mahatma Gandhi), monuments of architectural and archaeological surprises like Patan, Siddhpur, Dabhoi, Lothal, and Ahmedabad.
  • Ahmadpur- Mandvi beach, Saputara hill station, Gir forest, Wild-ass Sanctuary, Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary.
  • The Statue of Unity, an important tourist spot, is built in dedication to Iron Man Shri. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, who served as the first home minister of independent India. The Statue of Unity is the tallest statue in the world.  It is located on the Sadhu Bet island, near Rajpipla on the Narmada river.

Haryana 

Official Language – Hindi

History and Geography

  • The state was the home to the legendary Bharata dynasty, which later gave the name ‘Bharat’ to India.
  • The Huns, the Turks, and the Tughlaqs invaded India and the decisive battles were fought on this land.
  • The historic battle of Panipat in 1526 was also held in this state.
  • Haryana was born as a full-fledged state by the reorganization of Punjab in November 1956.
  • Haryana is bounded by Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, and Rajasthan.
  • It covered only 1.37 % of the total geographical area and less than 2% of India’s population.
  • Haryana has the second-highest per capita income in India.

River

  • Northern Haryana has several north-east to south-west flowing rivers that originate from the Sivalik Hills of the Himalayas, such as Ghaggar-Hakra.
  • Southern Haryana has several south-easts to north-west flowing seasonal rivulets which originate from the Aravalli Range in the Mewat region.
  • Dohan river, a tributary of Sahibi, originates at Mandoli village.
  • Krishnavati river also called Kasaunti, a former tributary of Sahibi River, originates near Dariba and disappears in Mahendragarh district much before reaching Sahibi river.
  • Indori river, the longest tributary of Sahibi River, originates in Sikar district of Rajasthan and flows to Rewari district in Haryana.
  • The seasonal Markanda River carries its surplus water to the Sanisa Lake, where the Markanda joins.

Agriculture

  • More than 65% population in Haryana directly enrolled themselves in agriculture and it is the second-largest contribution to the food bowl of the country.
  • More areas are being brought under cash crops like cotton, oilseeds, sugarcane, vegetables, and fruits.

Fairs and Festivals

  • The most popular fair in Haryana is the Surajkund Crafts Mela, which is held in February.
  • Other important fairs and festivals are Kurukshetra Festival in Kurukshetra, Lohri, Kurukshetra Festival, Baisakhi, Teej, Sanjhi, Kurukshetra Festival in Kurukshetra and Mango Festival.

Tourism

  • The state government has adopted a multi-pronged strategy to promote tourism.
  • Some important tourist complexes are Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary, Surajkund Baddhkal lake, Sohna, Damdama in Gurgaon, and the fascinating pocket of pines in the Morni hills.

Himachal Pradesh

Official Language – Hindi and Pahari

History and Geography

  • Himachal Pradesh is situated in the lap of the Western Himalayas with wonderful land.
  • People of various caste and religious groups address this land as ‘Dev Bhumi’.
  • This region is divided into three zones
    • the outer Himalayas or Shivalik
    • the inner Himalayas or mid-Himalayas
    • the great Himalayas or alpine zone.
  • This state was founded on 15th April 1948, as a result of the integration of some 30 erstwhile princely hill States.

Rivers

  • Himachal Pradesh provides water to both the Ganges and Indus basins.
  • The drainage systems of the region are the Chandra Bhaga or the Chenab, the Beas, the Sutlej, the Yamuna, and the Ravi.
  • The Beas rises in the Pir Panjal range near the Rohtang Pass and flows in Himachal Pradesh.
  • The Chandrabhaga or Chenab, the largest river, is formed after the meeting of two streams, Chandra and Bhaga in Lahaul.
  • The Ravi is born at Bara Banghal in Kangra district.
  • The Sutlej originates in distant Tibet and it cuts through both the great Himalayan and the Zaskar ranges and crosses the Indo-Tibetan border.
  • The Ghaggar river originates in the village of Dagshai in the Shivalik Hills of Himachal Pradesh.

Agriculture

  • 70% of the population is directly employed for agriculture.
  • The agro-climatic condition is congenial for the production of cash crops like off-season vegetables, seed potato, and ginger.
  • Horticulture also plays an important role in the agrarian economy and hence Himachal Pradesh is called ‘the fruit bowl’ of the country.
  • Important fruit crops are plum, peach, apricot, Apple, litchi, guava, citrus fruits, and strawberries.

Fairs and Festivals

  • Kullu Dussehra is one of the most significant festivals in Himachal Pradesh and is organized every year in October in the Dhalpur Maidan in the Kullu valley.
  •  Losar, a religious festival of Himachal Pradesh to celebrate the new year according to the Tibetan calendar is very famous.
  •  Halda, one of the beautiful festivals in this state closely resembles Diwali, the festival of lights

Tourism

  • Many outdoor activities such as rock climbing, mountain biking, paragliding, ice-skating, trekking, rafting, and heli-skiing are available in Himachal Pradesh.
  • Shimla is popular among tourists. The Kalka-Shimla mountain railway system is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • Other popular hill stations include Kullu Manali, Kinnuar, Parvati Valley, Chamba, Kinnar Kailesh, and Kasauli.

Jharkhand

Official Language – Hindi

History and Geography

  • Jharkhand emerged as the 28th state in November 2000.
  • During the 13th century, Raja Jai Singh Deo of Odisha had declared himself as the ruler of Jharkhand.
  • It comprises Chota Nagpur plateau, Santhal Pargana and has distinct cultural traditions.
  • It is surrounded by West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, and Odisha.

Rivers

  • Damodar is one of the famous rivers in the state.
  • Chandwa, Latehar in Jharkhand are recognized as the sources of the Damodar River.
  • Barakar, Konar, Bokaro, Haharo, Jamunia, Ghari, Guaia, Khadia, and Bhera are the tributaries and sub tributaries of the Damodar River.
  • The North Karo River drains in this state and it originates in the Ranchi Plateau. The South Karo river flows through Keonjhar and Sundergarh districts.
  • The Sankh River flows across Jharkhand, Odisha, and Chattisgarh. The North Koel River rises on the Ranchi plateau and enters the Palamau division, below Netarhat near Rud.

Agriculture

  • Major crops are rice, wheat, maize, oilseed (mustard, niger, til, groundnut) and cashew nut
  • Pulses like arhar, urad, moong, gram are also cultivated.

Fairs and Festivals

  • The cattle plays a very important role in the fairs and festivals of Jharkhand. We can see a big cattle fair, which includes the sale and purchase of cattle in most of these festivals.
  • Kunda Mela in Pratappur is one of the important festivals of Jharkhand and is highly remarkable for the sale of cattle.
  • Chatra Mela is another cattle fair, held during Durga Puja.
  • Kundri Mela, Kolhaiya Mela, Tutilawa Mela, Lawalong Mela, Belqada Mela, Sangharo Mela are some of the other important fairs and festivals which are being celebrated in Jharkhand.

Tourism

  • The most important tourist attractions are Ichagarh bird sanctuary, Chachto Crocodile breeding centre- Koderma, Jawaharlal Nehru zoological garden, Dalma wildlife sanctuary (Jamshedpur), Udhwa Sanctuary-Sahibganj (Pataura lake), Palkot wildlife sanctuary (Gumla), Birsa deer sanctuary (Kalmati Ranchi), Ranchi aquarium (Ranchi) and Hazaribagh national park.
  • Jharkhand Dham, langta Baba temple, Masanjore dam are other famous tourist attractions.

Karnataka

Official Language – Kannada

History & Geography

  • Karnataka was formerly known as Mysore. When it was a dynasty, it initiated and helped industrialization and cultural growth.
  • After independence, the Mysore state was created in 1953 and the enlarged Mysore state was emerged in 1956 and renamed Karnataka in 1973.
  • It is surrounded by Goa, Maharashtra, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu, and Kerala.

Rivers

  • The rivers in this state originate in the Western Ghats and run towards the eastern side of the state.
  • The Kaveri (or the Cauvery) is the largest river in the state and originates from the district of Coorg.
  • Talakaveri is the origin of the River Kaveri and the tributaries are Kabini, Arkavati, Harangi, The Honnuhole, The Bhavani, The Lokapavani, The Noyyal, The Amaravati, and River Shimsa.
  • The Krishna originates in Maharashtra and passes through Karnataka. The tributaries are the Bhima, the Tungabhadra, the Ghataprabha, and the Malaprabha.
  • The Sharavathi originates at Ambuthirtha in Thirthahalli Taluk and flows north-west through the Western Ghats. It forms the famous Jog Falls before joining the Arabian Sea.
  • The other west flowing rivers are Kali Nadi/Kali river, Aghanasini, Gangavalli, Mandavi, and Sharavathi.

Agriculture

  • Karnataka state is one of the leading states in the country in plantation and garden crops.
  • It is the largest producer of coffee in the country.
  • Tea, areca, coconut, cashew nut, cardamom, rubber, orange, and grapes are important plantations and garden crops.
  • The main crops grown are rice, ragi, jowar (sorghum), maize, and pulses (tur and gram).

Fairs and Festivals

  • Dussehra is celebrated in October, during this time Mysore palace is filled with soldiers in ceremonial dress, decorated elephants, and others.
  • Yugadi is a Kannada New Year that is celebrated at the end of March or the beginning of April.
  • Kambala Festival, Mahamastakabisheka, Chalukya Dance Festival, Sakranti, Vairamudi Festival are some commonly celebrated festivals.

Tourism

  • Some important tourist places are Mysore palace, Nagarhole National Park (Kabini), Hampi, Halebidu, Aihole, and Pattadakal.
  • The Golden Chariot named after the famous Stone Chariot in Hampi is a world heritage site in Southern India.

Kerala

Official Language – Malayalam

History and Geography

  • Under the State Reorganization Act, 1956, the Travancore-Cochin state and Malabar were united to form Kerala state in November 1956.
  • Kerala is situated in the Southwest of India.
  • This state is surrounded by the Western Ghats on the east and the Arabian Sea on the west and it is further divided into hills, valleys, midland plains, and coastal belts.

Rivers

  • There are 44 rivers in Kerala, most of them originate in the Western Ghats.
  • Some important west-flowing rivers are the Periyar river, Pamba river, Chaliyar river, Valapattanam river, Kuppam river, and Uppala river.
  • Three rivers originate in Kerala and flow eastwards (Kabini into Karnataka and Bhavani, Pambar into Tamil Nadu).
  • All three rivers ultimately join the Kaveri river.

Agriculture

  • The warm humid tropical climate and fertile soil make Kerala a unique place for the cultivation of a wide variety of crops such as rice, coconut, rubber, banana, cashew nut, coffee tubers, areca nut, fruits vegetables, and medicinal plants.
  • Due to its lush green paddy fields, fragrant spice garden, cool coconut groves, Kerala is called “God’s own country”.

Fairs and Festivals

  • Onam, the harvest festival, is celebrated on astronomical new year’s day.
  • Mahashivratri is celebrated on the banks of the Periyar river as a spectacular festival. Christmas, Easter, Milade Shareef, Ramzan, Eid ul Fitr, and Bakrid are celebrated in Kerala.

Tourism 

  • Kerala is famous for its ecotourism initiatives with beautiful backwaters. Beaches, backwaters in Alappuzha and Kollam are some important tourist destinations.
  • Other popular attractions in the state include the beaches at Kovalam, Kappad, backwater tourism, and Ashtamudi Lake, hill stations and resorts at Munnar, Wayanad, Vagamon, and Ponmudi,  national parks and wildlife sanctuaries at Parambikulam, Periyar, and Eravikulam.
  • Heritage sites such as the Hill Palace, Mattancherry Palace, and Padmanabhapuram Palace are also other famous tourist attractions.

Madhya Pradesh

Official Language – Hindi

History and Geography

  • Madhya Pradesh is the second-largest state in India.
  • It came into being on 1st November 1956 under the provisions of the State Reorganization Act 1956.
  • Again Madhya Pradesh was reorganized in November 2002 to create a new Chhattisgarh state.
  • Madhya Pradesh is surrounded by Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Rajasthan.

Rivers

  • The largest river by volume is the Narmada, followed by the Tapti.
  • Madhya Pradesh falls in five major river basins.
  • The northern part of the state falls within the Ganges Basin where the rivers Betwa, Chambal, and the Son flow.
  • The second-largest by surface area is the Ganges basin. The other three basins cover small portions of Madhya Pradesh, namely the Mahi Basin to the west, the Tapi Basin, and the Godavari Basin to the south.
  • The Narmada, the Mahi, and the Tapti River (Tapi) flow westward into the Gulf of Khambat, of the Arabian Sea. Godavari Basin.

Agriculture

  • The main important crops are oil seeds, garlic, gram, pulses, medicinal plants, and aromatic herbs.
  • Horticulture is also playing an important role.

Fairs and Festivals

  •  Bhagoria is an important tribal festival marked by traditional glee and enthusiasm.
  • Some well-known art festivals are Ustad Alauddin khan music festival Maihar, Tansen music festival, the festival of dances at Khajuraho, and Kalidas Samaroh, Ujjain.
  • Ramnavami festival at Chitrakoot and Orchha has a unique sense of devotion imbued with tradition.

Tourism

  • Kanha national park near Jabalpur is one of the most beautiful attractions.
  • The tranquil beauty of Pachmarhi, the glittering splendor of marble rocks, the roaring sound of Dhuandhar Fall at Bedaghat are other attractions.
  • Ujjain, Omkareshwar, Maheshwar, Chitrakoot, and Amarkantak are centres of pilgrims which are the declared holy cities.
  • The temples of Khajuraho, Bhojpuri, Udaipur, and Orchha attract also attract a large number of tourists.

Maharashtra

Official Language – Marathi

History and Geography

  • Satavahanas are well-known rulers and the founders of Maharashtra.
  • When the Bahmani rule brought a degree of coalition to the land and its culture, a uniquely homogeneous evolution of Maharashtra became a reality under the leadership of Shivaji.
  • In this place, the Indian National Congress was born and it is also the home of Gandhiji’s movement.
  • Under the Bombay Reorganization Act 1960 Maharashtra and Gujarat were split into separate states on 1st May 1960.
  • It shares the boundaries with the Arabian sea, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Telangana, Karnataka and Andhra.

Rivers

  • The Godavari River rises near Nashik in Maharashtra.
  • The Penganga Parvara, the Purna, the Wardha, the Manjra, the Wainganga, the Indravati, and the Kolab are the major tributaries of the river.
  • The Krishna River rises from the north of Mahabaleshwar.
  • The Ghataprabha, the Malaprabha, the Bhima, the Tungabhadra, and the Musi are the principal tributaries joining Krishna.
  • Tapi River rises near Multai in the Betul district of Madhya Pradesh.
  • The Girna, the Panjhra, the Purna, the Vaghur, the Bori and the Aner are the principal tributaries of Tapi.

Agriculture

  • The major crops are Wheat, Bajra, Rice, Jowar, Pulses, Urad, and Moong.
  • It is the major producer of oilseeds, sugarcane, cotton, vegetables, and turmeric.

Fairs and Festivals

  • Changdeo fair at Edlabad, Kiran Utsav at Kolhapur, Rathyatra at Nashik, and the Shrirama Rathotsava fair and the Navaratra Mahalaxmi fair at Jalgaon are some popular fairs.
  • Festivals like Ugadi, Eid al-Fitr, Jamshed Navroz (Parsi New Year), and Christmas are celebrated with great fervour.
  • Equal importance is given to Ellora Festival, Kalidas Festival, Pune festivals, Jamshed Navroz, and Sawai Gandharva Sangeet Mahotsav.

Tourism

  • Some important tourist places are Ajanta and Ellora caves, Kanheri and Karla caves, Jowhar, Amboli, Panhala hill stations, Mahabaleshwar.
  • Aundha Nagnath, Nashik, Bhima Shankar, Kolhapur, Tuljapur, Shirdi, and Ganpatipule are some famous religious places.

Manipur

Official Language – Manipuri

History and Geography

  • Sovereignty and independence remained uninterrupted until the Burmese invasion and occupation for around 7 years in the first quarter of the 19th century.
  • Later Manipur came under British rule in 1891 and regained independence in 1947 and merged into Indian Union in 1950.
  • Later in 1963, a territorial assembly was set up under the Government of Union Territory Act 1963.
  • It became a full-fledged state in 1972.
  • It is bounded by the chin hills of Myanmar, Nagaland, Chachar district of Assam, and Mizoram.

Rivers

  • Kathe Khyoung River flows into Myanmar, where it merges with the Myittha River, a tributary of the Chindwin River.
  • Imphal River is a major river in Manipur which originates in Kangpokpi District.
  • The Iril River runs through the eastern suburbs of the city of Imphal in Manipur.
  • The Khuga is impounded by the Khuga Dam at Churachandpur to form the Khuga Reservoir.

Agriculture

  • Some commercial crops grown in Manipur are cotton, oilseeds, and sugarcane.
  • Kharif vegetables French beans, cucurbits, tomatoes, brinjal, bhindi, and alocasia are grown.
  • Rabi vegetables, cabbage, cauliflower, potato, pea, broad bean, radish, carrot, broccoli, lettuce, capsicum are also grown in Manipur.

Fairs and Festivals

Manipur has a cycle of festivals which include Lai Haraoba, Rasa Leela, Idul Zuha, Ningol Chak- Kouba, Yaoshang, Mera Houchongba, Christmas, kit, Rath- Jatra, Diwali, and Idul Fitr.

Tourism

Manipur has fascinating tourist and religious places like Shree Shree Govindajee temple, war cemeteries, kangla, Nupi Lan, Loktak lake, Dzuko valley, state museum, Siroy hills, Keibul Lamjao National Park, orchidarium, and Indian peace memorial.

Meghalaya

Official Language – Khashi, Jaintia and Garo

History and Geography

  • Meghalaya literally means ‘Adobe of the clouds’.
  • It was inaugurated as an autonomous state in 1970 and it was declared as a full-fledged state in 1972.
  • It is predominantly inhabited by the tribal Jaintias, Khasis, and Garos population.
  • It is bounded by Assam, Meghalaya, and Bangladesh.

Rivers

  • The river system in Meghalaya originates from the Tura range.
  • The north group of rivers includes Didak, Ringgi, and Kalu and the south group of rivers includes Dareng, Bhogai, and others.
  • The Simsang or the Someshwari River is one of the major rivers in the entire river system of Meghalaya.

Agriculture

  • Major food crops are maize and rice.
  • The state is also renowned for its horticulture crops like lemon, pineapple, orange, litchi, banana, jackfruit, goa, peach, plum, and pear.
  • The important cash crops are turmeric, black pepper, ginger, potato, cotton, mustard, areca nut, betel and mesta.
  • Apart from these, the state has successfully cultivated non-traditional crops like oilseeds, cashew nuts, mushrooms, tomatoes,  and wheat.

Fairs and Festivals

  • Dance is an important part of the festivals.
  • Nongkrem dance, Ka Pomblang Nongkrem or the Behdiengkhlam festival and Wangala festival are some of the festivals which are celebrated in Meghalaya.
  • The main festival of the people in Garos is Wangala or the Hundred-drum Festival. It is held from November to December. This is a harvest festival celebrated to honour and offer sacrifices to Saljong, the Sun-God of fertility.
  • Other festivals of Garos are Mangona, Dore Rata Dance, DenBilsia, Sa Sat Ra Chaka, Rongchu gala, Mi Amua, Grengdik BaA, Jamang Sia, Ja Megapa,  AjeaorAhaoea,  Chambil Mesara, Do’KruSua, Saram Cha’A, A Se Mania or Tata

Tourism

  • Umiam Lake and Cherrapunji are some important tourist destinations.
  • Waterfalls in the state include the Elephant Falls, Shadthum Falls, Weinia falls, Bishop Falls, Nohkalikai Falls, Langshiang Falls and Sweet Falls.
  • Balpakram National Park and The Nokrek National Park are some major attractions.
  • Garo Hills has its own charm with a lot of wildlife

Mizoram

Official Language – Mizo and English

History and Geography

  • Mizoram became the 23rd state of India in February 1987.
  • Until 1972 it was one of the districts of Assam, after being annexed by the British in 1891, Lushai hills in the north remained under Assam while the Southern half remained under Bengal.
  • Under North Eastern Reorganization Act in 1972, Mizoram became a union territory and as a sequel, the signing of a historical memorandum of settlement between the Government of India and the Mizo National Front took place in 1986
  • It was granted statehood in 1987.
  • It is surrounded by Myanmar and Bangladesh.

Rivers

  • The biggest river in Mizoram is Chhimtuipui, also known as Kaladan, Kolodyne, or Chimtuipui.
  • It originates in Chin state in Burma and passes through Saiha and Lawngtlai districts in the southern tip of Mizoram.
  • The most important and useful rivers are the Tlawng, Tut, Tuirial, and Tuivawl which flow through the northern territory and eventually join the Barak River in Cachar District.

Agriculture

  • 63% of the total crop area is under Jhum cultivation.
  • Spices like turmeric, black pepper, bird’s eye chilies and ginger are also grown.
  • Floriculture is the main growing occupation in Mizoram.
  • Commercial cultivation of hi-tech rose was introduced in 2006 and nearly 10,000 roses are being harvested every day.

Fairs and Festivals

  • ‘Kut’ is the name for Mizo festivals and most of the festivals are based on jhum cultivation.
  • Chapchar kut, Mimkut, and Thalfavang kut are some important festivals celebrated in this state.
  • Rather, they evolved spontaneously out of community spirit and participation.

Tourism

  • Champa is a beautiful resort on the Myanmar border and Phawngpui is the highest peak for trekkers.
  • There is also a recreational centre at Aizwal, an Alpine picnic Hut at the district park near Zobawk.
  • In Reiek Tlang, the tourism department created a typical Mizo village, and resort.

Nagaland

Official Language – Ao, Konyak, Angami, Sema, and Lotha

History and Geography

  • The Nagaland people entirely belong to the Indo Mangaloid group living in a contiguous area of the northeastern hills of India and the upper portion of Western Myanmar.
  • In January 1961 the Government of India conferred the status of a state on Nagaland.
  • Nagaland was officially inaugurated on December 1, 1963.
  • The recognized tribes are Kuki, Konyak, Lotha, Sumi, Sangtam, Rengma, Pochury Kachari ànd Zeliang.
  • Nagaland is bounded by Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Assam and Myanmar (Burma).

Agriculture

  • The main crops are maize, millet, rice and pulses.
  • Cash crops are potato and sugarcane.
  • Cardamon, coffee and tea are grown as plantation crops in Nagaland.

Fairs and Festivals

  • Nagaland is called the ‘Land of Festivals’.
  • Since agriculture is an important part of Nagaland, there are several pre-harvest, harvest, post-harvest and sowing celebrations like Tsukhenye Festival (by the Chakhesang tribe), Mimkut (by the Kuki tribe), Bushu (by the Kachari tribe), and Yemshe (by the Pochury tribe) are being celebrated in Nagaland.
  • Apart from these, the popular Angami tribe is famous for its purification festival of Sekrenyi.
  • Tribes of the state come together to celebrate the hornbill festival conceived by the tourist department which is held in the first week of December.

Tourism

Dimapur, Kohima, Mokokchung, Mon, Wokha, Dzukou Valley, Tuophema Village, Khonoma Green Village, Benreu, Meluri, Kiphire, Peren,  Tuensang, Longleng are some famous tourist spots in Nagaland.

Odisha

Official Language – Oriya

History and Geography

  • Kalinga, Utkal, and Odra are the old names of Odisha.
  • During the time of Mahavira and Buddha, the entire Kalinga region acquired recognition and fame. Ashoka’s invasion of Kalinga was an epoch-making event of ancient times.
  • Orissa was successfully ruled by five Muslim kings till 1592 from mid 16th century.
  • Marathas occupied Odisha till the British took over the provinces in 1803.
  • Modern Orissa was born in 1936. In 2011 Orissa was renamed Odisha and the ‘Oriya’ language was renamed ‘odia’.

Rivers

  • Mahanadi is the largest river in the state.
  • There are several other significant rivers such as the Baitarani, the Brahmani, the Vansadhara and the Subarnarekha.
  • Chilika lake, one of the world’s largest brackish water lagoons, is located on the east coast of the state.

Agriculture

  • The major crops are pulses, rice, oilseeds, jute, turmeric and coconut.
  • The crops like cotton, tea, groundnut and rubber have great economic importance.
  • Odisha contributes one-tenth of the total rice produced in the country.

Fairs and Festivals

  • Since Lord Jagannath is the premier deity worshipped in the state, a large number of festivals are dedicated to him.
  • Puri Rath Yatra is famous all over India and attracts devotees and tourists.
  • The Shakti cult is also a major part of the cultural tapestry in Odisha.
  • The Hindu festival of Durga Puja and Kali Puja is celebrated each year with great gusto.
  •  International Sand Art Festival amazes with the stunning displays of sand sculptures at Chandrabhaga Beach near Konark
  • Konark Dance Festival attracts classical dancers from all Indian disciplines – from Kathak to Manipuri.

Tourism

  • The Government has created a separate Winkel tourist police and deployed them at sea beach at Puri, Konark, and Gopalpur.
  • The major temples of Odisha are present in Ekamra Kshetra or the temple city of Mayank.
  • Some of the famous treks in Odisha are Gandhamardhan Trek, Mahendragiri Trek and Nilgiri Trek.
  • Barkul and Dhabaleswar are the top places to visit for the water sports lovers

Punjab

Official Language – Punjabi

History and Geography

  • In the Ancient time period, Punjab was a part of the Indo-Iranian region.
  • Medieval Punjab was ruled by some Muslim rulers like the Ghoris, the Slave Dynasty, the Khiljis, the Lodhi’s, and the Mughals.
  • On November 1, 1966, Punjab was divided into three regions – Punjab comprising the predominantly Punjab-speaking areas, Haryana made up of the Hindi-speaking districts, and Kharar tehsil and the capital Chandigarh.
  • At last, the hilly areas were transferred to Himachal Pradesh.

Rivers

  • The word Punjab means ‘The Land of Five Waters’, referring to the rivers Chenab, Sutlej, Jhelum, Beas and Ravi.
  • All are tributaries of the Indus River and Sutlej is the largest river.

Agriculture

  • The state ranks seventh as a cross producer of wheat in the world and it generates the largest marketable surplus after Canada and Australia.
  • Punjab’s marketable surplus is second in the case of rice because of using excellent conditions such as infrastructure, adoption of appropriate technologies, good extension services, and government incentives, and enabling state policies.

Fairs and festivals

  • Dussehra, Diwali, Holi, Maghi Mela at Mukatsar, Basant at Patiala, Baisakhi at Talwandi Sabi, Chappar Mela at Chappar, Harballab Sangeet Sammelan Baba Sodal at Jalandhar are some important festivals celebrated in Punjab.
  • Amritsar, Patiala, and Kapurthala are some harvest festivals celebrated every year.

Tourism

  • Amritsar is the city known for legends, patriotism, and spirituality. It is home to the Golden Temple or Sri Harmandir Sahib, this is among the most significant pilgrimage sites for Sikhs.
  •  Jallianwala Bagh, the topmost historical destination, palaces and museums reflect its past glory.
  • Kapurthala, Patiala, Ludhiana, Mohali, Jalandhar, Bhatinda, Pathankot, Nangal, Ropar, Sirhind are other important tourist places located in Punjab.

Rajasthan

Official Language – Rajasthani and Hindi

History and Geography

  • Area-wise, Rajasthan is the largest state.
  • Before independence, it was known as Rajputana or Rajput.
  • Rajasthan came into existence on November 1, 1950, and in the year 1958, this state formally came into existence.
  • It shares borders with Pakistan, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and Gujarat.

Rivers

  • Rajasthan is one of the driest states of the country.  The Aravalli range forms the main watershed for Rajasthan.
  • The Luni river system that rises from the western slopes of the Aravalli Range (near Ajmer) flows into the Rann of Kutch and the Arabian Sea, while the Banas and other streams, rising from the eastern slopes of the Aravallis, join the Chambal.
  • The main watercourses like the Sabarmati, Banas are tributaries of the Luni which is more or less parallel to the Aravalli.

Agriculture

  • The major crops produced in this state are wheat, jowar, millet, barley, oilseeds, Kharif pulses, cotton gram, and maize.
  • Fruit such as orange and malta are cultivated over the last few years.
  • Some commercial crops such as red chilies, cumin seeds, methi, and mustard are also cultivated in this state.

Fairs and Festivals

  • Gangaur, kite, Holi-Dhulandi Teej and Rajasthan Divas are some famous fairs.
  • Some festivals like the Braj Holi festival (Bharatpur), Shri Mahaveer fair (karauli), Kaila Devi fair, Mewar festival (Udaipur), Bundi festival (Bundi), Dussehra an Adventure festival (Kota), cattle fair (Nagaur), and Ranakpur festival are celebrated.

Tourism

Jaipur, Jodhpur, Mount Abu, Ranthambore national park, Ajmer, Udaipur, Chittorgarh, Sariska Tiger National Park, Jaisalmer, Keoladeo National Park are some important tourist places.

Sikkim

Official Language – Bhutia, Hindi, Nepali, Lepcha, Limbu

History and Geography

  • The story of Sikkim starts from the 13th century with the signing of a treaty between Lepcha chieftain Thekong Tek and Bhutia chieftain khye- Bumsa at Kabi lungtsok.
  • Sikkim is the 22nd state of India under the constitution (38th amendment) Act 1975.
  • Sikkim is bordered by Tibet (Region of China), Bhutan, West Bengal and Nepal. The capital is Gangtok, which is in the southeastern part of the state.

Rivers

  • Sikkim has two main rivers – the Teesta river and Rangeet river.
  • Rangeet is one of its main tributaries which originates from the Rathong glacier.
  • During monsoons, the flow of the Teesta is greatest due to monsoon rains and supply of bountiful meltwater through glaciers.
  • Jaldhaka River, Lachen River, Rangpo River, Rangeet River, Relli River are some important rivers that flow through this region.

Agriculture

  • Rice, wheat, maize, finger millet, buckwheat, pulses, oilseeds are some important crops.
  • Organically grown cash crops are ginger, large cardamom, oranges, turmeric, cherry paper, baby corn, buckwheat.

Fairs and festivals

  • Festivals such as Pang Lhabsol, Bumchu, and Losar are the famous festivals in Sikkim.
  • Tibetan New Year is celebrated every February with great fervour and enthusiasm.
  • Another New Year festival in Sikkim is the Sonam Losoong of Sikkimese Bhutia, which also marks the end of the harvest festival.
  • Losar festival, Bumchu festival, Dentam Rhododendron Festival, Jorethang Maghey Mela, Sonam Lhochhar Festival, Ram Navami Festival, Lampokhari Paryatan Mahotsav are other important festivals celebrated in Sikkim.

Tourism

  • Gangtok is the capital city of Sikkim and the beauty of this city justify it being one of the prominent cities in the state.
  • Gurudongmar is one of the highest lakes in the entire world. The key attractions include wildlife with blue sheep and yak, Snow-capped mountain peaks.
  • Chomalu Lake is regarded as the 14th highest lake in the whole world, which attracts more tourists to Sikkim.

Tamil Nadu

Official Language – Tamil

History & Geography

  • The southern states of India were under the hegemony of the Cholas, the Cheras, and the Pandyas for centuries.
  • The Pallavas held supremacy from about the second quarter of the fourth century A.D.
  • European commercial interest had appeared as rivals in the area of South India.
  • The Portuguese, the Dutch, the French, and the English came in quick succession and established trading centres known as ‘Factories’.
  • Tamil Nadu was one of the first British settlements in India. The State is the successor to the old Madras Presidency, which covered the bulk of the southern peninsula in 1901.
  • It is bounded by Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, the Bay of Bengal, and the Indian Ocean.

Rivers

  • Kaveri, Thenpennai, Palar are the three largest rivers of Tamil Nadu
  • Vaigai River, Noyyal River, Cheyyar River, Then Pennai, Vellar River (Northern Tamil Nadu), Vellar River (Southern Tamil Nadu), Moyar River, Bhavani River, Thamirabarani River, Vaippar River are the major rivers in Tamil Nadu

Agriculture

  • Food crops include paddy, millets, and pulses.
  • Commercial crops include sugarcane, cotton, sunflower, coconut, cashew, chilies, gingelly, and groundnut.
  • Plantation crops are tea, coffee, cardamom, and rubber.

Fairs and Festivals

  • Pongal is the harvest festival celebrated by the farmers in January to worship the sun, the earth, and the cattle.
  • Alanganallur in Tamil Nadu is widely famous for Jallikattu – Bullfight.
  • Kanthuri Festival is a truly secular festival, where devotees flock to the shrine of saint Quadirwali.
  • One of the descendants of the Saint is chosen as a Peer or spiritual leader and is honored with offerings.
  • The Velankanni festival attracts thousands, clad in orange robes to the sacred spot where the ship landed.

Tourism

Chennai, Mamallapuram, Poompuhar, Kancheepuram, Kumbakonam, Chidambaram, Srirangam, Madurai, Rameswaram, Kanniyakumari, Thanjavur, Velankanni, Nagoor, Chithannavasal, Kazhugumalai, Courtallam, Hogenakkal, Papanasam, Suruli (water-falls), Ooty (Udhagamandalam), Kodaikanal, Yercaud, Elagiri Kolli Hills (hill stations),  Mudumalai, Mundanthurai, Kalakad (wildlife sanctuaries), Vedanthangal and Point Calimere (bird sanctuaries), Arignar Anna Zoological Park, near Chennai, are some of the places of tourist interest.

Telangana

Official Language – Telugu

History and  Geography

  • During the reign of nizams, it was known as Telugu Angana to differentiate it from the area where Marathi was spoken.
  • This was ruled by Satavahanas, Chalukyas, Mughals, Qutubshahis, and Asafjahis.
  • Before 2014, Telangana was a part of Andhra Pradesh and in the year 2014 Telangana was formed as a separate state.
  • It is surrounded by Karnataka, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh and Odisha.

Rivers

  • The state is drained by two major rivers such as Godavari and Krishna.
  • The sub basins are lower Krishna, middle Krishna, Godavari, Pranhita, lower bima, Middle Godavari and Indravati.
  • Other major rivers flowing or that flow in Telangana are Bhima river, Krishna river, Manjra, Wardha, Wainganga and Tungabhadra

Agriculture

  • It depends on the distribution of rainfall and the influence of the Southwest monsoon.
  • Rice is the major food crop and other important crops are mango, tobacco, sugarcane, rice, cereals, jowar, ragi, bajra, and cotton.

Fairs and Festivals 

  • As a symbol of cultural identity, a colorful festival ‘Bathukamma’is celebrated.
  • Bonalu is an annual Hindu festival celebrated in this state.
  • Apart from this Dussehra, Peerla Panduga, Ramzan, Samakka Saarakka Jaathara are also celebrated.

Tourism

Important tourist places are Charminar, Qutub Shahi Tombs, Paigah Tombs, Kakatiya Kala Thoranam, Jagannath Temple, Kolanupaka Jain Temple, Thousand Pillar Temple, Mecca Masjid, Toli Masjid, Spanish Mosque, Badapahad Dargah, Joseph’s Cathedral, George’s Church, Centenary Methodist Church, All Saints Church, Golconda Fort, Bhongir Fort, Hill Fort Palace, Hussain Sagar Lake, Osman Sagar Lake.

Tripura

Official Language – Bengali, Tripuri, Manipuri, Kakborak

History and  Geography

  • The history of Tripura dates back to the Rajmala chronicles of king Tripura and the writings of historians.
  • The 19th century marked the beginning of the modern era in Tripura when king Maharaja Bir Chandra Kishore Manikya Bahadur modeled his administrative set up on the British India pattern.
  • His success had ruled Tripura till 15th October 1949 when the state merged with Indian Union.
  • It became a centrally administered territory with the Reorganization of states in 1956 and in 1972, Tripura attained the status of the full-fledged state.
  • It is situated between the river valleys of Myanmar and Bangladesh (almost on three sides) and it is also surrounded by Assam and Mizoram.

Rivers

  • There are 10 major rivers in the state.
  • They are generally ephemeral in nature and their flow is directly related to the rainfall.
  • The Burima, Gomati, Khowai, Howrah, Longai, Dhalai, Muhuri, Feni, Juri, Manu are the major rivers

Agriculture

  • The major Kharif crops are rice, maize, pigeon pea, black gram, green gram, cowpea, groundnut, sesame, jute, mesta, cotton.
  • Different crops taken during Rabi season are rice, wheat, pea, green gram, lentil, rapeseed-mustard, potato.
  • Tripura is endowed with rich and diverse bamboo resources.

Fairs and Festivals

  • A unique feature of the socio-cultural environment of the state is that people of both tribal and non-tribal communities equally participate and enjoy various festivals.
  • Garia, Durga Puja, Buddha Purnima, Kharchi, Pous Sankranti, Bijhu, or Christmas festivals float in the social ambiance throughout the state.

Tourism

  • The capital city of Agartala has several attractions.
  • It is one of the important sites to be explored in Tripura.
  • Ujjayanta Palace, Umamaheshwar Temple, Puratan Agartala, Jagannath Temple are some of the prime spots in Tripura

Uttarakhand

Official Language – Hindi

History and  Geography

  • Uttarakhand was mentioned in ancient Hindu scriptures as Manas Khand, Kedarkhand and Himavant.
  • Kushanas, Kunindas, Kanishka, Samudragupta, Puravas, Katuris, Palas, Chandras and Panwars and the British have ruled it in turns.
  • It is also known as the ‘Land of Gods’ because it has holy places and abundant shrines.
  • Earlier it was a part of the United province of Agra and came into existence in 1902.
  • In 1935 the name of the state was shortened to the United provinces and in 1950 the United provinces were renamed Uttar Pradesh.
  • It was carved out in 2000 as the 27th state of India.
  • It is located in the foothills of the Himalayas and shares its boundaries with China, Nepal, Himachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.

Rivers

  • Uttarakhand is said to be the land of the two most holy rivers in India like Ganga and Yamuna.
  • Other famous rivers in the state include Bhagirathi and many other tributaries and distributaries such as Dhauli Ganga, Kali Ganga, Girthi Ganga, Rishi Ganga, Bal Ganga, Bhilangna River, Tons River, Alaknanda, Nandakini, Pindar, Kosi, and Mandakini.

Agriculture

  • Major crops grown in the state are rice, wheat, sugarcane, maize, soybean, pulses, oilseeds and several fruits and vegetables.
  • Coconut is the most important crop.
  • Cash crops are sugarcane, tobacco, cotton, jute, and oilseeds.
  • Plantation crops are coffee, coconut, tea, and rubber

Fairs and Festivals

  • Kumbh Mela, the world-famous festival, is held at Haridwar at every twelfth or sixth-year interval.
  • Other fairs and festivals are Purnagiri Mela, Nanda Devi Mela, Baisakhi, Devidhura Mela, Uttaraini Mela, Vishu Mela, and Nanda Devi Raj Jat Yatra which are held every twelfth year.

Tourism

Kedarnath, Badrinath, Haridwar, Rishikesh, Gangotri, Kailash, Manasarovar, Yatra, Nanakmatta, Gangotri, and Yamunotri and some hill stations like Dehradun, Nainital, Ranikhet, Mussoorie, Bageshwar are the most prominent places.

Uttar Pradesh

Official Language – Hindi

History and  Geography

  • It has an ancient and interesting history and it is recognized in the later Vedic Age as Brahmarshi Desha or Madhya Desha.
  • In the medieval period, UP was under Muslim rule and led the way to a new synthesis of Hindu and Islamic cultures.
  • In 1950 the United provinces of Agra and Oudh were renamed as Uttar Pradesh.
  • The state is bounded by Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh and Bihar.

River

  • The state has more than 32 rivers which include large and small rivers.
  • Of them, the Ganges, Yamuna, Saraswati, Sarayu, Betwa, and Ghaghara are larger and religiously important.
  • Other important rivers are Babai River, Betwa River, Ken River, Gomati River, Sharda river, Sindh River, Hindon River, Karmanasa River, Tamsa River, and Chambal River.

Agriculture

  • Wheat, rice, pulses, oilseeds, and potatoes are major agricultural products.
  • Sugarcane is the most important cash crop throughout the state.
  • Uttar Pradesh is one of the most important states in India as far as horticulture is concerned.
  • Mangoes are also produced in the state.

Fairs and Festivals

  • Kumbh Mela and Ardh Kumbh Mela, world-famous festivals, are celebrated every 12th or 6th year.
  • Magh Mela is also held at Allahabad in January.
  • A famous cattle fair is held at Bateswar in the Agra district.
  • Dewa in the Barabanki district is famous because of Muslim Saint Waris Ali Shah.

Tourism

  • Some ancient important pilgrimage interests are Varanasi, Ayodhya, Chitrakoot, Mathura, Vindyanchal, Dewa Sharief, Dargah of Sheikh Saleem Chisti in Fatehpur Sikri, Saraswati Sarnath, Kushinagar
  • Places like Ayodhya, Varanasi, Agra, Jhansi, Lucknow, Kannauj, Devgarh, and Vindhyachal have rich treasures of Hindu and Islamic architecture and culture.

West Bengal

Official Language – Bengali

History and Geography

  • This region was settled by Dravidians, Tibet-Burmans, and Austro Asiatic peoples.
  • It is also a part of the Magadha empire and it is one of the four main kingdoms of India during the times of Mahavira and Buddha.
  • The history of modern Bengal begins with the advent of Europeans as English trading companies.
  • Bengal was partitioned in 1905 to achieve some political returns.
  • When India became independent in 1947, Bengal was partitioned between India and Pakistan. While Pakistan’s share came to be called East Pakistan, India’s share was called West Bengal.

Rivers

  • West Bengal is a land of many rivers.
  • The Ganga divides the state into two unequal hubs: the North and South Bengal.
  • Barakar, Dwarka, Kansi, Jalangi, Churni, Damodar, Ganga are the major rivers located in this state.

Agriculture

  • West Bengal is the second-largest fish producing state.
  • Apart from these, wheat, sugarcane, and jute are the top crops of the state.
  • Other major food crops include pulses, barley, oilseeds, barley, maize, and vegetables.

Fairs and Festivals

  • Durga puja is the most important festival in West Bengal celebrated with immense devotion.
  • Basant Utsav literally means the ‘celebration of spring’.
  • Charak puja is the special folk festival, celebrated for bidding goodbye to the passing year.
  • Vishnupur Festival, Bera Utsav, Ganga Sagar Mela are other festivals celebrated in this state.

Tourism

  • West Bengal is famous for its terracotta temples of Bishnupur.
  • Hazarduari Palace, a popular tourist attraction, is known to have the second largest chandelier in the world.
  • The Victoria Memorial, Howrah Bridge, and the Second Hooghly Bridge (Vidyasagar Setu) are the iconic tourist spots of Kolkata.

 

Thus, a detailed account of the different features of the States of India has been discussed in this article. In the upcoming article, the features of Union Territories will be detailed.